β3 integrin–null osteoclasts are dysfunctional, but their numbers are increased in vivo. In vitro, however, the number of β3–/– osteoclasts is reduced because of arrested differentiation. This paradox suggests cytokine regulation of β3–/– osteoclastogenesis differs in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, additional MCSF, but not receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), completely rescues β3–/– osteoclastogenesis. Similarly, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and expression of c-Fos, both essential for osteoclastogenesis, are attenuated in β3–/– preosteoclasts, but completely restored by additional MCSF. In fact, circulating and bone marrow cell membrane-bound MCSFs are enhanced in β3–/– mice, correlating with the increase in the osteoclast number. To identify components of the MCSF receptor that is critical for osteoclastogenesis in β3–/– cells, we retrovirally transduced authentic osteoclast precursors with chimeric c-Fms constructs containing various cytoplasmic domain mutations. Normalization of osteoclastogenesis and ERK activation, in β3–/– cells, uniquely requires c-Fms tyrosine 697. Finally, like high-dose MCSF, overexpression of c-Fos normalizes the number of β3–/– osteoclasts in vitro, but not their ability to resorb dentin. Thus, while c-Fms and αvβ3 collaborate in the osteoclastogenic process via shared activation of the ERK/c-Fos signaling pathway, the integrin is essential for matrix degradation.
Roberta Faccio, Sunao Takeshita, Alberta Zallone, F. Patrick Ross, Steven L. Teitelbaum
M. Neale Weitzmann, Cristiana Roggia, Gianluca Toraldo, Louise Weitzmann, Roberto Pacifici
Frank Rauch, Rose Travers, Horacio Plotkin, Francis H. Glorieux